Items tagged with analysis in Blogs.law Aggregation HubItems tagged with analysis in Blogs.law Aggregation Hub
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TagTeam social RSS aggregratorPictures Unpack 20,669 WordsThat’s a small sample of some great work by the artist R. Siskoryak, who (Wikipedia tells us), usually “specializes in making comic adaptations of literature classics”, but has now graphically adapted the complete text of what Joe Coscarelli (@JoeCoscarelli) of The New York Times (in Artist Helps iTunes’ User Agreement Go Down Easy,), calls “the complete […]<p><img src="http://blogs.harvard.edu/vrm/files/2017/03/rsiskoryak-image.png" alt="rsiskoryak-image" width="633" height="557"></p><p>That’s a small sample of some great work by the artist <a href="http://rsikoryak.tumblr.com/">R. Siskoryak</a>, who (<a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Sikoryak">Wikipedia tells us</a>), usually “specializes in making comic adaptations of literature classics”, but has now graphically adapted the complete text of what <a href="https://www.nytimes.com/by/joe-coscarelli">Joe Coscarelli</a> (<a href="http://twitter.com/joecoscarelli">@JoeCoscarelli</a>) of <em>The New York Times</em> (in <a href="https://www.nytimes.com/2017/03/06/books/itunes-terms-conditions-comic-book.html">Artist Helps iTunes’ User Agreement Go Down Easy</a>,), calls “the complete text of Apple’s mind-numbing corporate boilerplate” one must agree to before using iTunes.</p><p>The adaptation has its own <a href="http://itunestandc.tumblr.com/post/158070675145/rsikoryak-is-on-tour-to-promote-the-new-color">Tumblr site</a>, where it says, “<a href="https://tmblr.co/mbHEux1XhJyg3xpAFJCLSoA">@rsikoryak</a> is on tour to promote the new color edition of <a href="http://t.umblr.com/redirect?z=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.drawnandquarterly.com%2Fterms-and-conditions&t=M2ZmMGU0MWI1YWM5MjNhOGYwMmUzYzhhZmI0OWQ0YWE0MjY2YzUyMSxCZ0hWUEtPTA%3D%3D&b=t%3A-1Pqe2vcdQy98G62RbGxDg&p=http%3A%2F%2Frsikoryak.tumblr.com%2Fpost%2F158070758400%2Fitunestandc-rsikoryak-is-on-tour-to-promote-the&m=1">Terms and Conditions: The Graphic Novel</a>, out now from <a href="https://tmblr.co/mrRhZKcIBKbmxUioZo3zVEw">@drawnandquarterly</a>.” Hence the image above. His <a href="https://www.drawnandquarterly.com/author/r-sikoryak">well-illustrated bio there</a> is fun too. You can also read the original Tumblr version from the beginning <a href="http://itunestandc.tumblr.com/tagged/comics/chrono">here</a>.</p><p><a href="https://www.drawnandquarterly.com/event/2017/02/r-sikoryak-tour-terms-and-conditions">He’ll be appearing</a> (and, presumably speaking and showing) at the <a href="http://www.strandbooks.com/event/r-sikoryak-terms-and-conditions">Strand Bookstore</a>, 828 Broadway, 10003, with Kenneth Goldsmith, at 7pm this evening (Thursday, March 9). He’s already been in Baltimore. Next up:</p><ul><li>Pittsburgh, PA, Friday, March 17, 2017 – 6:00pm, <a href="http://toonseum.org/events/new-yorker-cartoonist-r-sikoryak-toonseum-march-17/">ToonSeum with Copacetic Comics</a>. 945 Liberty Ave, 15222</li><li>Cincinnati, OH, Tuesday, March 21, 2017 – 7:00pm, <a href="http://www.josephbeth.com/AdultEvents.aspx">Joseph-Beth Booksellers</a>, 2692 Madison Ave., 45208 with Carol Tyler</li><li>New York, NY, Friday, March 24, 2017 – 4:00pm, <a href="https://www.eventbrite.com/e/comic-law-con-tickets-31941260169">Spring Symposium</a>, Cardozo Law Journal, moderated by Brett Frischmann</li><li>Rochester, NY, Wednesday, April 12, 2017 – 4:00pm, <a href="http://www.rit.edu/">Rochester Institute of Technology</a>, Bamboo Room in the Student Alumni Union, 1 Lomb Memorial Dr, 14623</li><li>Toronto, ON, <a href="http://www.torontocomics.com/portfolio/r-sikoryak/">Toronto Comic Arts Festival</a>, Friday, May 12, 2017 – 9:00am to Sunday, May 14, 2017 – 5:00pm, Toronto Reference Library, 789 Yonge</li></ul><p>Meanwhile, here are a few things we’ve been doing (both through ProjectVRM and <a href="http://customercommons.org/terms">CustomerCommons</a>, which is working with the <a href="http://kantarainitiative.org/confluence/display/infosharing/Home">Consent & Information Sharing Working Group at Kantara</a>) on terms and conditions <em>you</em>, the individual formerly known as “the user” (as if you’re on drugs) can assert as the first party. In other words, ways companies such as Apple can click “agree” to what you bring to the level table between you both. Four reasons they would do that:</p><ol><li>We have the Internet now. It’s a flat place. We don’t need to drag industrial age defaults that give companies scale across many customers, but don’t give individuals scale across many companies.</li><li><a href="https://medium.com/@dsearls/customers-need-scale-f8e045b90304#.rnajkrw6q">Ours can have scale too</a>. This is what <a href="http://cluetrain.com">Cluetrain promised in 1999</a> when it said <em>we are not seats or eyeballs or end users or consumers. we are human beings and our reach exceeds your grasp. deal with it.</em> Sure, companies haven’t heard of customer boilerplate before; but they do like consistency, simplicity, predictability, standardization and saving money and time. Customers’ scalable terms will bring them all.</li><li>Our terms can be as friendly online as they are off. First example: <a href="http://j.mp/nostalkng">#NoStalking</a>, which can save the asses of publishers and advertisers, and maybe <a href="http://bit.ly/trvtsg">save journalism too</a>.</li><li>GDPR compliance. No need to worry about Europe’s new <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/General_Data_Protection_Regulation">General Data Protection Regulation</a> and its <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/General_Data_Protection_Regulation#Sanctions">scary penalties</a> when agreeing to friendly GDPR-compliant terms proffered by individuals obviates the whole thing.</li></ol><p>Bonus links:</p><ul><li><a href="https://cyber.harvard.edu/projectvrm/EmanciTerm">EmanciTerm</a> (An early brand-like name we came up with for a term an individual might assert. The two below are examples.)</li><li>#NoStalking, which we explain in <a href="https://j.mp/cdbug">How customers can debug business with one line of code</a> (19 April 2016 here, and <a href="https://medium.com/@dsearls/how-customers-can-debug-business-with-one-line-of-code-f1f943bc1e04#.xlavbrfup">in Medium</a>), and in <a href="http://j.mp/nostalkng">Why #NoStalking is a good deal for publishers</a> (11 May 2016 here, and in <em><a href="http://j.mp/n0stalkng">Medium</a></em>). <a href="http://kantarainitiative.org/confluence/pages/viewpage.action?pageId=80053232">Here is the current draft</a> of the term itself.</li><li><a href="https://cyber.harvard.edu/projectvrm/Intentcasting">#Intentcasting</a>, which we have visited in <a href="http://blogs.harvard.edu/vrm/category/intentcasting/">many posts here</a>. <a href="http://kantarainitiative.org/confluence/display/infosharing/UST+Intentcasting+V.2+UX+and+Human+Readable">Here is the current draft</a> for some intentcasting terms.</li></ul><p>We will also be visiting all of these—on both the first and second party sides—at <a href="https://www.eventbrite.com/e/vrm-day-2017a-tickets-32191214790">VRM Day</a>, and then at the 24th <a href="https://iiw24.eventbrite.com/">Internet Identity Workshop</a>, which happen together the first week of May at the <a href="http://computerhistory.org">Computer History Museum</a> in Silicon Valley.</p>Thu, 16 Mar 2017 19:47:46 -0400
http://blogs.harvard.edu/vrm/2017/03/16/pictures-unpack-20669-words/
http://blogs.harvard.edu/vrm/?p=3311Doc SearlsanalysisPositive #VRM signsFirst, there’s this tweet by @EvaPascoe, featuring this photo (which I just transformed from a trapezoid to a rectangle): Then there is this from three analysts at KuppingerCole, which has been covering VRM since giving ProjectVRM an award in 2008. I’ll also be presenting at VRM et Données Personnelles (VRM and Personal Data) on Tuesday evening […]<p>First, there’s <a href="https://twitter.com/EvaPascoe/status/611483035767304192">this tweet</a> by <a href="https://twitter.com/EvaPascoe">@EvaPascoe</a>, featuring this photo (which I just transformed from a trapezoid to a rectangle):</p>
<p><img src="https://blogs.law.harvard.edu/vrm/files/2015/06/htw-slide.jpg" alt="htw-slide" width="80%" height="image"></p>
<p>Then there is <a href="https://www.kuppingercole.com/av062015">this</a> from three analysts at <a href="https://www.kuppingercole.com/">KuppingerCole</a>, which has been covering VRM since giving ProjectVRM <a href="https://www.kuppingercole.com/blog/kuppinger/eic_award_290408">an award in 2008</a>.</p>
<p>I’ll also be presenting at <span><a href="http://www.meetup.com/Projet-VRM-France-Reprenons-le-pouvoir-sur-nos-donnees/events/219346484/">VRM et Données Personnelles (VRM and Personal Data)</a> on Tuesday evening in Paris.(Wish I could be there in person, but I’ll be on a good connection from nine time zones west of there.) VRM has been a happening thing in France <a href="https://blogs.law.harvard.edu/vrm/2013/01/22/vrm-taking-root-in-france/">for awhile</a> now.</span></p>
Sat, 20 Jun 2015 13:41:10 -0400
http://blogs.harvard.edu/vrm/2015/06/20/positive-vrm-signs/
http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/vrm/?p=2852Doc SearlsanalysisPositive #VRM signsFirst, there’s this tweet by @EvaPascoe, featuring this photo (which I just transformed from a trapezoid to a rectangle): Then there is this from three analysts at KuppingerCole, which has been covering VRM since giving ProjectVRM an award in 2008. I’ll also be presenting at VRM et Données Personnelles (VRM and Personal Data) on Tuesday evening […]<p>First, there’s <a href="https://twitter.com/EvaPascoe/status/611483035767304192">this tweet</a> by <a href="https://twitter.com/EvaPascoe">@EvaPascoe</a>, featuring this photo (which I just transformed from a trapezoid to a rectangle):</p>
<p><img src="https://blogs.law.harvard.edu/vrm/files/2015/06/htw-slide.jpg" alt="htw-slide" width="80%" height="image"></p>
<p>Then there is <a href="https://www.kuppingercole.com/av062015">this</a> from three analysts at <a href="https://www.kuppingercole.com/">KuppingerCole</a>, which has been covering VRM since giving ProjectVRM <a href="https://www.kuppingercole.com/blog/kuppinger/eic_award_290408">an award in 2008</a>.</p>
<p>I’ll also be presenting at <span><a href="http://www.meetup.com/Projet-VRM-France-Reprenons-le-pouvoir-sur-nos-donnees/events/219346484/">VRM et Données Personnelles (VRM and Personal Data)</a> on Tuesday evening in Paris.(Wish I could be there in person, but I’ll be on a good connection from nine time zones west of there.) VRM has been a happening thing in France <a href="https://blogs.law.harvard.edu/vrm/2013/01/22/vrm-taking-root-in-france/">for awhile</a> now.</span></p>
Sat, 20 Jun 2015 13:41:10 -0400
http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/vrm/2015/06/20/positive-vrm-signs/
http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/vrm/?p=2852Doc Searlsanalysispimslife management platformsidentityJ. B. S. Haldane on Statistical FraudFrom Haldane‘s 1941 essay in Eureka #6 on “The Faking of Genetical Results“, reproduced here with appropriate corrections and hyperlinks. MY FATHER published a number of papers on blood analysis. In the proofs of one of them the following sentence, or something very like it, occurred: “Unless the blood is very thoroughly faked, it will be found that [...]<p><em>From <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/J._B._S._Haldane">Haldane</a>‘s 1941 essay in </em>Eureka<em> #6 on “</em><a href="http://www.archim.org.uk/eureka/27/faking.html">The Faking of Genetical Results</a><em>“, reproduced here with appropriate corrections and hyperlinks.</em></p><div><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Scott_Haldane">MY FATHER</a> published a number of papers on blood analysis. In the proofs of one of them the following sentence, or something very like it, occurred: “<em>Unless the blood is very thoroughly faked, it will be found that duplicate determinations rarely agree.</em>” Every biochemist will sympathise with this opinion. I may add that the verb “to lake,” when applied to blood, means to break up the corpuscles so that it becomes transparent.<p>In genetical work also, duplicates rarely agree unless they are faked. Thus I may mate two brother black mice, both sons of a black father and a white mother, with two white sisters, and one will beget 10 black and 15 white young; the other 15 black and 10 white. To the ingenuous biologist this appears to be a bad agreement. A mathematician will tell him that where the same ratio of black to white is expected in each family, so large a discrepancy (though how best to compare discrepancies is not obvious) will occur in about 26 percent of all cases. If the mathematician is a rigorist he will say the same thing a little more accurately in a great many more words.</p><p>A biologist who has no mathematical knowledge, and, what is vastly more serious, no scientific honour, will be tempted to fake his results, and say that he got 12 black and 13 white in one family, and 13 black and 12 white in the other. The temptation is generally more subtle. In one of a number of families where equality is expected he gets 19 black and 6 white mice. It looks much more like a ratio of 3 black to 1 white. How is he to explain it? Wasn’t that the cage whose door once seemed to be insecurely fastened? Perhaps the female got out for a while or some other mouse got in. Anyway he had better reject the family. The total gives a better fit to expectation if he does so, by the way. Our poor friend has forgotten the binomial theorem. A study of the expansion of <strong>(1+x/2)<sup>25</sup></strong> would have shown him that as bad a fit or worse would be obtained with a probability of 122753 x 2<sup>-23</sup>, or <strong>.0146</strong>. There is nothing at all surprising in getting one family as aberrant as this in a set of 20. But he is now on a slippery slope.</p><p>He gets his Ph.D. He wants a fellowship, and time is short. But he has been reading <em>Nature</em> and noticed two letters* to that journal of which I was joint author, in which I might appear to have hinted at faking by my genetical colleagues. Thoroughly alarmed, he goes to a venal mathematician. Cambridge is full of mathematicians who have been so corrupted by quantum mechanics that they use series which are clearly <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Divergent_series">divergent</a>, and not even proved to be summable. Interrupting such a one in the midst of an orgy of <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Homi_J._Bhabha">Bhabha</a> and benzedrine, our villain asks for a treatise on faking.</p><div>“I am trying to reconcile <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_Arthur_Milne">Milne</a>, <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Max_Born">Born</a> and <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paul_Dirac">Dirac</a>, not to mention some facts which don’t seem to agree with any of them, or with Eddington,” replies the debauchee, “and I feel discontinuous in every interval; but here goes.<p>“I suppose you know the hypothesis you want to prove. It wouldn’t be a bad thing to grow a few mice or flies or parrots or cucumbers or whatever you’re supposed to be working on, to see if your hypothesis is anywhere near the facts. Suppose in a given series of families you expect to get four classes of hedgehogs or whatnot with frequencies <em>p</em><sub>1</sub>, <em>p</em><sub>2</sub>, <em>p</em><sub>3</sub>, <em>p</em><sub>4</sub>, and your total is <strong><em>S</em></strong>, I shouldn’t advise you to say you got just <em>Sp</em><sub>1</sub>, <em>Sp</em><sub>2</sub>, <em>Sp</em><sub>3</sub> and <em>Sp</em><sub>4</sub>, or even the nearest whole number. Here is what you’d better do. Say you got <em>A</em><sub>1</sub>, <em>A</em><sub>2</sub>, <em>A</em><sub>3</sub> and <em>A</em><sub>4</sub>, and evaluate</p><p><img src="http://www.archim.org.uk/eureka/27/faking-eq2.png" alt="\chi^2 = ((A_1 - Sp_1)^2 / Sp_1) + ((A_2 - Sp_2)^2 / Sp_2) + ..." width="290" height="42"></p><p>Your <img src="http://www.archim.org.uk/eureka/27/faking-chi2.png" alt="\chi^2" width="21" height="19"> has three degrees of freedom. That is to say you can say you got <em>A</em><sub>1</sub> red, <em>A</em><sub>2</sub> green and <em>A</em><sub>3</sub> blue hedgehogs. But you will then have to say you got <strong><em>S</em></strong>-<em>A</em><sub>1</sub>-<em>A</em><sub>2</sub>-<em>A</em><sub>3</sub> purple ones. Hence the expected value of <img src="http://www.archim.org.uk/eureka/27/faking-chi2.png" alt="\chi^2" width="21" height="19"> is 3, and its standard error is <img src="http://www.archim.org.uk/eureka/27/faking-sqrt6.png" alt="\sqrt{6}" width="29" height="19">; so choose your <em>A</em>‘s so as to give a <img src="http://www.archim.org.uk/eureka/27/faking-chi2.png" alt="\chi^2" width="21" height="19"> anywhere between 1 and 6. This is called faking of the first order. It isn’t really necessary. You might have <img src="http://www.archim.org.uk/eureka/27/faking-eq3.png" alt="p_1 = 9/16" width="61" height="36">, <img src="http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/sj/files/2012/03/p2-equals-p3.png" alt="p_2 = p_3 = 3/16" width="92" height="36">, <img src="http://www.archim.org.uk/eureka/27/faking-eq5.png" alt="p_4 = 1/16" width="61" height="36"> and <strong><em>A</em><sub>1</sub>=9, <em>A</em><sub>2</sub>=<em>A</em><sub>3</sub>=3, <em>A</em><sub>4</sub>=1</strong>. The probability of getting this is <img src="http://www.archim.org.uk/eureka/27/faking-eq6.png" alt="(16! 3^24) / (9! (3!)^2 1! 16^16)" width="99" height="43">, which is only just under <strong>.04</strong>. However, it looks better not to get the exact numbers expected, and if you do it on a population of hundreds or thousands you may be caught out.“Your second order faking is the same sort of thing. Supposing your total is made up of <strong><em>n</em></strong> families, and you say the <strong><em>r</em></strong>th consisted of <em>a</em><sub><em>r</em>1</sub>, <em>a</em><sub><em>r</em>2</sub>, <em>a</em><sub><em>r</em>3</sub>, <em>a</em><sub><em>r</em>4</sub> members of the four classes, <strong><em>s</em><sub><em>r</em></sub></strong> in all: you take</p><p><img src="http://www.archim.org.uk/eureka/27/faking-eq7.png" alt="((a_{r1} - s_r p_1)^2 / s_r p_1) + ((a_{r2} - s_r p_2)^2 / s_r p_2) + ..." width="260" height="42"></p><p>and sum for all values of <strong><em>r</em></strong>. Your total ought to be somewhere near <strong>3<em>n</em></strong>. The standard error is <img src="http://www.archim.org.uk/eureka/27/faking-sqrt6n.png" alt="\sqrt{6n}" width="40" height="19">, and it’s better to be too high than too low. A chap called <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Franz_Moewus">Moewus</a> in Berlin who counted different types of <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chlamydomonas">algae</a> (or so he said), got such a magnificent agreement between observed and theoretical results, that if every member of the human race had repeated his work once a month for <strong>10<sup>12</sup></strong> years, they might expect as good a fit on one occasion (though not with great confidence). So Moewus certainly hadn’t done any second order faking. Of course I don’t suggest that he did any faking at all. He <a href="http://books.google.com/books/about/Where_the_Truth_Lies.html?id=1rDCaJ25KRAC">may have run into</a> one of those theoretically possible miracles, like the monkey typing out the text of Hamlet by mere luck. But I shouldn’t have a miracle like that in your fellowship dissertation.</p><p>“There is also third order faking. The <strong>4<em>n</em></strong> different components of <img src="http://www.archim.org.uk/eureka/27/faking-chi2.png" alt="\chi^2" width="21" height="19"> should be distributed round their mean in the proper way. That is to say, not merely their mean, but their mean square, cube and so on, should be near the expected values (but not too near). But I shouldn’t worry too much about the higher orders. The only examiner who is likely to spot that you haven’t done them is <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/J._B._S._Haldane">Haldane</a>, and he’ll probably be interned as a Red before you send your thesis in. Of course you might get <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ronald_Fisher">R. A. Fisher</a>, which would be quite as bad. So if you are worried about it you’d better come back and see me later.”</p></div><p>Man is an orderly animal. He finds it very hard to imitate the disorder of nature. In fact the situation is the exact opposite of what the reader of <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William%20Paley">Paley</a>‘s <em>Evidences</em> might expect. But the problem is an interesting one, because it raises in a sharp and concrete way the question of what is meant by randomness, a question which, I believe, has not been fully worked out. The number of independent numerical criteria of randomness which can be applied increases with the number of observations, but much more slowly, perhaps as its logarithm. The criteria now in use have been developed to search for excessive irregularity, that is to say, unduly bad fit between observation and hypothesis. It does not follow that they are so well adapted to a search for an unduly good fit. Here, I believe, is a real problem for students of probability. Its solution might lead to a better set of axioms for that very far from rigorous but none the less fascinating branch of mathematics.</p><p>* see U. Philip and J. B. S. Haldane (1939). <em>Nature</em>, <strong>143</strong>, p. 334. and Hans Grüneberg and J. B. S. Haldane (1940). <em>Nature</em>, <strong>145</strong>, p. 704.</p></div><p>Two closing comments by <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_William_K%C3%B6rner">T. W. Körner</a>, who found Haldane’s essay worth reprinting in his brilliant <a href="http://www.amazon.com/Fourier-Analysis-T-246-rner/dp/0521389917">textbook</a> on Fourier analysis: </p><blockquote><p>“<em>The reluctance of the scientific community to accept the possibility of fraud is illustrated by the fact that Moewus was still cited in the literature (and even spoken of as a possible Nobel prize winner) until 1953. However, no one else ever succeeded in repeating his experiments…</em></p><p>Unfortunately the statistical war against fraud is now over and the cheaters have won. The kind of tests proposed by Haldane depended on the fact that ‘higher order faking’ required a great deal of computational work. The invention and accessibility of the computer means that the computational work involved has ceased to be a problem for the dishonest scientist. In the physical and biological sciences the possibility that others will attempt to replicate experiments may act as a sufficient deterrent but in purely statistical subjects like sociology and experimental psychology the poblems raised by potential fraud have still to be faced.”</p></blockquote>Fri, 09 Mar 2012 05:06:18 -0500
http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/sj/2012/03/09/j-b-s-haldane-on-statistical-fraud/
http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/sj/?p=2218metasjstatisticssciencemetricspopular demandchain-gangmathematicsanalysisfraudhaldane