Pth1r in Neural Crest Cells Regulates Nasal Cartilage Differentiation

pubmed: wnt1 2024-05-26

J Dent Res. 2024 Mar;103(3):308-317. doi: 10.1177/00220345231221954. Epub 2024 Jan 17.


Neural crest cells (NCC) arise from the dorsal margin of the neural plate border and comprise a unique cell population that migrates to and creates the craniofacial region. Although factors including Shh, Fgf8, and bone morphogenetic proteins have been shown to regulate these biological events, the role of parathyroid hormone 1 receptor (Pth1r) has been less studied. We generated an NCC-specific mouse model for Pth1r and researched gene expression, function, and interaction focusing on nasal cartilage framework and midfacial development. Wnt1-Cre;Pth1rfl/fl;Tomatofl/+ mice had perinatal lethality, but we observed short snout and jaws, tongue protrusion, reduced NCC-derived cranial length, increased mineralization in nasal septum and hyoid bones, and less bone mineralization at interfrontal suture in mutants at E18.5. Importantly, the mutant nasal septum and turbinate cartilage histologically revealed gradual, premature accelerated hypertrophic differentiation. We then studied the underlying molecular mechanisms by performing RNA seq analysis and unexpectedly found that expression of Ihh and related signaling molecules was enhanced in mutant nasomaxillary tissues. To see if Pth1r and Ihh signaling are associated, we generated a Wnt1-Cre; Ihhfl/fl;Pth1rfl/fl;Tomatofl/+ (DKO) mouse and compared the phenotypes to those of each single knockout mouse: Wnt1-Cre; Ihhfl/fl;Pth1rfl/+;Tomatofl/+ (Ihh-CKO) and Wnt1-Cre;Ihhfl/+;Pth1rfl/fl;Tomatofl/+ (Pth1r-CKO). Ihh-CKO mice displayed a milder effect. Of note, the excessive hypertrophic conversion of the nasal cartilage framework observed in Pth1r-CKO was somewhat rescued DKO embryos. Further, a half cAMP responsive element and the 4 similar sequences containing 2 mismatches were identified from the promoter to the first intron in Ihh gene. Gli1-CreERT2;Pth1rfl/fl;Tomatofl/+, a Pth1r-deficient model targeted in hedgehog responsive cells, demonstrated the enlarged hypertrophic layer and significantly more Tomato-positive chondrocytes accumulated in the nasal septum and ethmoidal endochondral ossification. Collectively, the data suggest a relevant Pth1r/Ihh interaction. Our findings obtained from novel mouse models for Pth1r signaling illuminate previously unknown aspects in craniofacial biology and development.

PMID:38234039 | DOI:10.1177/00220345231221954