LINC00665 interacts with BACH1 to activate Wnt1 and mediates the M2 polarization of tumor-associated macrophages in GC
pubmed: wnt1 2022-08-06
Mol Immunol. 2022 Jun;146:1-8. doi: 10.1016/j.molimm.2022.03.120. Epub 2022 Apr 5.
Gastric cancer (GC) remains one of the prevalent causes of cancer-related deaths globally. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been associated with different cancers. The polarization of macrophages towards the M2 (alternatively activated) phenotype promotes immunologic tolerance and can induce gastric tumorigenesis. Thus far, lncRNAs have been shown to modulate the differentiation of immune cells. Here, we investigated the biological effects of LINC00665 on the progression of GC and explored the mechanisms underlying its ability to mediate the polarization of macrophages towards the M2 phenotype. We report that the levels of LINC00665 were increased in GC tissues. Furthermore, this increase in LINC00665 expression could be associated with decreased overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and post-progression survival (PPS). Using cell-based macrophage polarization models, we demonstrated that LINC00665 upregulation in GC cells facilitated the polarization of macrophages towards the M2 but not M1 (classically activated) phenotype. Furthermore, the loss of LINC00665 prevented the M2 polarization of macrophages. Mechanically, we identified that Wnt1 was the downstream target of LINC00665. Additionally, LINC00665 could directly interact with the transcription factor BTB domain and CNC homology 1 (BACH1). The interaction between LINC00665 and BACH1 resulted in the activation and binding of BACH1 to the Wnt1 promoters. Furthermore, BACH1 silencing could inhibit GC progression, which highlighted a crucial role for BACH1 in LINC00665-mediated Wnt1 activation. In addition, genetic Wnt1 overexpression effectively abolished the repression of Wnt signaling after BACH1 depletion and mediated GC development by supporting M2 macrophage polarization. In conclusion, we report that LINC00665 modulates M2 macrophage polarization and suggest that it may facilitate macrophage-dependent GC progression.