Role of Piezo mechanosensitive ion channels in the osteoarticular system

pubmed: wnt1 2024-05-27

Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2024 Feb 15;38(2):240-248. doi: 10.7507/1002-1892.202310092.


OBJECTIVE: To summarize the role of Piezo mechanosensitive ion channels in the osteoarticular system, in order to provide reference for subsequent research.

METHODS: Extensive literature review was conducted to summarize the structural characteristics, gating mechanisms, activators and blockers of Piezo ion channels, as well as their roles in the osteoarticular systems.

RESULTS: The osteoarticular system is the main load-bearing and motor tissue of the body, and its ability to perceive and respond to mechanical stimuli is one of the guarantees for maintaining normal physiological functions of bones and joints. The occurrence and development of many osteoarticular diseases are closely related to abnormal mechanical loads. At present, research shows that Piezo mechanosensitive ion channels differentiate towards osteogenesis by responding to stretching stimuli and regulating cellular Ca 2+ influx signals; and it affects the proliferation and migration of osteoblasts, maintaining bone homeostasis through cellular communication between osteoblasts-osteoclasts. Meanwhile, Piezo1 protein can indirectly participate in regulating the formation and activity of osteoclasts through its host cells, thereby regulating the process of bone remodeling. During mechanical stimulation, the Piezo1 ion channel maintains bone homeostasis by regulating the expressions of Akt and Wnt1 signaling pathways. The sensitivity of Piezo1/2 ion channels to high strain mechanical signals, as well as the increased sensitivity of Piezo1 ion channels to mechanical transduction mediated by Ca 2+ influx and inflammatory signals in chondrocytes, is expected to become a new entry point for targeted prevention and treatment of osteoarthritis. But the specific way mechanical stimuli regulate the physiological/pathological processes of bones and joints still needs to be clarified.

CONCLUSION: Piezo mechanosensitive ion channels give the osteoarticular system with important abilities to perceive and respond to mechanical stress, playing a crucial mechanical sensing role in its cellular fate, bone development, and maintenance of bone and cartilage homeostasis.

PMID:38385239 | PMC:PMC10882244 | DOI:10.7507/1002-1892.202310092