Anticonvulsive and Neuroprotective Effects of Eupafolin in Rats Are Associated with the Inhibition of Glutamate Overexcitation and Upregulation of the Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway
pubmed: wnt1 2022-09-23
ACS Chem Neurosci. 2022 May 18;13(10):1594-1603. doi: 10.1021/acschemneuro.2c00227. Epub 2022 May 2.
Several plant compounds have been found to possess neuroactive properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the anticonvulsant effect of eupafolin, a major active component extracted from Salvia plebeia, a herb used in traditional medicine for its anti-inflammatory properties. To this end, we assessed the anticonvulsant effects of eupafolin in rats intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected with kainic acid (KA) to elucidate this mechanism. Treatment with eupafolin (i.p.) for 30 min before KA administration significantly reduced behavioral and electrographic seizures induced by KA, similar to carbamazepine (i.p.), a widely used antiepileptic drug. Eupafolin treatment also significantly decreased KA seizure-induced neuronal cell death and glutamate elevation in the hippocampus. In addition, eupafolin notably reversed KA seizure-induced alterations in α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor subunit GluR2, glutamate decarboxylase 67 (GAD67, GABAergic enzyme), and Wnt signaling-related proteins, including porcupine, Wnt1, phosphorylated-glycogen synthase kinase-3β, β-catenin, and Bcl-2 in the hippocampus. Furthermore, the increased level of Dickkopf-related protein 1 (Dkk-1, a Wnt signaling antagonist) and the decreased level of Disheveled1 (Dvl-1, a Wnt signaling activator) in the hippocampus of KA-treated rats were reversed by eupafolin. This study provides evidence of the anticonvulsant and neuroprotective properties of eupafolin and of the involvement of regulation of glutamate overexcitation and Wnt signaling in the mechanisms of these properties. These findings support the benefits of eupafolin in treating epilepsy.