Genotype-phenotype relationship and comparison between eastern and western patients with osteogenesis imperfecta
pubmed: wnt1 2023-09-23
J Endocrinol Invest. 2023 Jun 4. doi: 10.1007/s40618-023-02123-2. Online ahead of print.
PURPOSE: To evaluate the genotypic and phenotypic relationship in a large cohort of OI patients and to compare the differences between eastern and western OI cohorts.
METHODS: A total of 671 OI patients were included. Pathogenic mutations were identified, phenotypic information was collected, and relationships between genotypes and phenotypes were analyzed. Literature about western OI cohorts was searched, and differences were compared between eastern and western OI cohorts.
RESULTS: A total of 560 OI patients were identified as carrying OI pathogenic mutations, and the positive detection rate of disease-causing gene mutations was 83.5%. Mutations in 15 OI candidate genes were identified, with COL1A1 (n = 308, 55%) and COL1A2 (n = 164, 29%) being the most common mutations, and SERPINF1 and WNT1 being the most common biallelic variants. Of the 414 probands, 48.8, 16.9, 29.2 and 5.1% had OI types I, III, IV and V, respectively. Peripheral fracture was the most common phenotype (96.6%), and femurs (34.7%) were most commonly affected. Vertebral compression fracture was observed in 43.5% of OI patients. Biallelic or COL1A2 mutation led to more bone deformities and poorer mobility than COL1A1 mutation (all P < 0.05). Glycine substitution of COL1A1 or COL1A2 or biallelic variants led to more severe phenotypes than haploinsufficiency of collagen type I α chains, which induced the mildest phenotypes. Although the gene mutation spectrum varied among countries, the fracture incidence was similar between eastern and western OI cohorts.
CONCLUSION: The findings are valuable for accurate diagnosis and treatment of OI, mechanism exploration and prognosis judgment. Genetic profiles of OI may vary among races, but the mechanism needs to be explored.