The impact of aging and oxidative stress in metabolic and nervous system disorders: programmed cell death and molecular signal transduction crosstalk

pubmed: wnt1 2023-12-03

Front Immunol. 2023 Nov 8;14:1273570. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2023.1273570. eCollection 2023.


Life expectancy is increasing throughout the world and coincides with a rise in non-communicable diseases (NCDs), especially for metabolic disease that includes diabetes mellitus (DM) and neurodegenerative disorders. The debilitating effects of metabolic disorders influence the entire body and significantly affect the nervous system impacting greater than one billion people with disability in the peripheral nervous system as well as with cognitive loss, now the seventh leading cause of death worldwide. Metabolic disorders, such as DM, and neurologic disease remain a significant challenge for the treatment and care of individuals since present therapies may limit symptoms but do not halt overall disease progression. These clinical challenges to address the interplay between metabolic and neurodegenerative disorders warrant innovative strategies that can focus upon the underlying mechanisms of aging-related disorders, oxidative stress, cell senescence, and cell death. Programmed cell death pathways that involve autophagy, apoptosis, ferroptosis, and pyroptosis can play a critical role in metabolic and neurodegenerative disorders and oversee processes that include insulin resistance, β-cell function, mitochondrial integrity, reactive oxygen species release, and inflammatory cell activation. The silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) (SIRT1), AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK), and Wnt1 inducible signaling pathway protein 1 (WISP1) are novel targets that can oversee programmed cell death pathways tied to β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+), nicotinamide, apolipoprotein E (APOE), severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV-2) exposure with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and trophic factors, such as erythropoietin (EPO). The pathways of programmed cell death, SIRT1, AMPK, and WISP1 offer exciting prospects for maintaining metabolic homeostasis and nervous system function that can be compromised during aging-related disorders and lead to cognitive impairment, but these pathways have dual roles in determining the ultimate fate of cells and organ systems that warrant thoughtful insight into complex autofeedback mechanisms.

PMID:38022638 | PMC:PMC10663950 | DOI:10.3389/fimmu.2023.1273570