WNT ligands in non-small cell lung cancer: from pathogenesis to clinical practice
pubmed: wnt1 2023-12-06
Discov Oncol. 2023 Jul 24;14(1):136. doi: 10.1007/s12672-023-00739-7.
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the malignant tumor with the highest morbidity and leading cause of death worldwide, whereas its pathogenesis has not been fully elucidated. Although mutations in some crucial genes in WNT pathways such as β-catenin and APC are not common in NSCLC, the abnormal signal transduction of WNT pathways is still closely related to the occurrence and progression of NSCLC. WNT ligands (WNTs) are a class of secreted glycoproteins that activate WNT pathways through binding to their receptors and play important regulatory roles in embryonic development, cell differentiation, and tissue regeneration. Therefore, the abnormal expression or dysfunction of WNTs undoubtedly affects WNT pathways and thus participates in the pathogenesis of diseases. There are 19 members of human WNTs, WNT1, WNT2, WNT2b, WNT3, WNT3a, WNT4, WNT5a, WNT5b, WNT6, WNT7a, WNT7b, WNT8a, WNT8b, WNT9a, WNT9b, WNT10a, WNT10b, WNT11 and WNT16. The expression levels of WNTs, binding receptors, and activated WNT pathways are diverse in different tissue types, which endows the complexity of WNT pathways and multifarious biological effects. Although abundant studies have reported the role of WNTs in the pathogenesis of NSCLC, it still needs further study as therapeutic targets for lung cancer. This review will systematically summarize current research on human WNTs in NSCLC, from molecular pathogenesis to potential clinical practice.