Palmitic acid and trans-4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamate, the active ingredients of Yaobishu formula, reduce inflammation and pain by regulating gut microbiota and metabolic changes after lumbar disc herniation to activate autophagy and the Wnt/β-catenin pathway

pubmed: wnt1 2024-02-27

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis. 2024 Feb;1870(2):166972. doi: 10.1016/j.bbadis.2023.166972. Epub 2023 Nov 26.


The imbalance in gut microbiota triggers an inflammatory response that spreads from the gut to the discs and is associated with lumbar disc herniation (LDH). In this study, we investigated the mechanism of palmitic acid (PA) and trans-4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid (THMC) on microbiota, metabolic homeostasis, and autophagy after LDH. The LDH rat model was established by puncturing the exposed intervertebral disc. 16S rDNA was used to assess the gut microbiome composition. The microbial metabolites were analyzed by UPLC-MS. The mechanism of PA and THMC in LDH was explored by fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). We found that Yaobishu, PA, THMC, and the positive control drug Celebrex attenuated intervertebral disc damage in LDH rats and downregulated TRPV1, IL-1β, and IL-18 expression. In addition, Yaobishu reduced Oscillospirales and Ruminococcaceae abundances after LDH. PA increased Bacilli's abundance while decreasing Negativicutes and Ruminococcaceae abundances. Metabolomics showed that Yaobishu increased 2-hexanone, methyl isobutyl ketone, 2-methylpentan-3-one, and nonadecanoic acid levels but decreased pantetheine and urocanate levels. PA and THMC reduced uridine and urocanate levels. Yaobishu, PA, and THMC activated autophagy and the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in LDH rats. Moreover, antibiotics abrogated these effects. FMT-PA and FMT-THMC activated autophagy and decreased IL-1β, IL-18, Wnt1, β-catenin, and TRPV1 expression. FMT-PA and FMT-THMC partially reversed the effects of 3-MA. Taken together, our data suggest that Yaobishu, PA, and THMC relieve inflammation and pain by remodeling the gut microbiota and restoring metabolic homeostasis after LDH to activate autophagy and the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, which provide a new therapeutic target for LDH in the clinic.

PMID:38016505 | DOI:10.1016/j.bbadis.2023.166972