Digithead's Lab Notebook: Guide to Open Science
" ... Refactoring science to take advantage of digital technology is a what Michael Nielsen, quoted above, calls, 'Building a better collective memory.' The problems with the current system reinforce the case for change. The reproducibility crisis, the prevalence of unreliable findings in published research described by Ioannidis, is giving science a credibility problem. Negative results and replications go unpublished. Peer review is uncompensated and sometimes ineffective. The publication process is slow. Over time, data gets lost. Artificial barriers impede potential synergy among researchers, or between research and industry, students, or patients. The scientific paper has become something of a choke point. Unbundling the functions of a paper might allow more degrees of freedom for progress and innovation. As science and technology progress, the amount of accumulated knowledge that must be mastered to get to the frontier increases. 'If one is to stand on the shoulders of giants, one must first climb up their backs, and the greater the body of knowledge, the harder this climb becomes.' This 'burden of knowledge' changes the effective organization of innovative activity. As the low hanging fruit is depleted, research becomes more specialized and team oriented. In this new regime, the strategy that comes into play is leveraging the 'scale of the communication' of the Internet. The experience of the Polymath project inspired Gowers and Nielsen to write 'mass collaboration will extend the limits of human problem-solving ability.' Not everything digital is necessarily open, but the interesting developments are concentrated at the intersection of open and digital science - in the interaction between technology and the redesign of centuries old institutions. Overview ... Here are two great places to start:  Michael Nielsen's talk Open science now! at TEDxWaterloo in 2011. 'We need to have a second open science revolution.'  Jason Priem's essay Scholarship: Beyond the paper, Nature 2013. 'The journal and article are being superseded by algorithms that filter, rate and disseminate scholarship as it happens' ..."