The role of the histone methyltransferase SET domain bifurcated 1 during palatal development
pubmed: wnt1 2022-06-23
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2022 Apr 2;598:74-80. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2022.01.127. Epub 2022 Feb 2.
The histone methyltransferase SET domain bifurcated 1 (SETDB1) catalyzes the trimethylation of lysine 9 of histone H3, thereby regulating gene expression. In this study, we used conditional knockout mice, where Setdb1 was deleted only in neural crest cells (Setdb1fl/fl,Wnt1-Cre + mice), to clarify the role of SETDB1 in palatal development. Setdb1fl/fl,Wnt1-Cre + mice died shortly after birth due to a cleft palate with full penetration. Reduced palatal mesenchyme proliferation was seen in Setdb1fl/fl,Wnt1-Cre + mice, which might be a possible mechanism of cleft palate development. Quantitative RT-PCR and in situ hybridization showed that expression of the Pax9, Bmp4, Bmpr1a, Wnt5a, and Fgf10 genes, known to be important for palatal development, were markedly decreased in the palatal mesenchyme of Setdb1fl/fl,Wnt1-Cre + mice. Along with these phenomena, SMAD1/5/9 phosphorylation was decreased by the loss of Setdb1. Our results demonstrated that SETDB1 is indispensable for palatal development partially through its proliferative effect. Taken together with previous reports that PAX9 regulates BMP signaling during palatal development which implies that loss of Setdb1 may be involved in the cleft palate development by decreasing SMAD-dependent BMP signaling through Pax9.